PASSCAL Experiments http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/rss/experiments en GeoGirls http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/scheduledetails/exptnumb/201504 A series of small experiments will be designed by middle school students attending an outreach program at Mount St. Helens during the summers of 2015 and 2016. The students will design and carry out small research projects using portable seismic instruments and other geophysical techniques to record and study dynamic processes at Mount St. Helens. This experimental outreach program is part of Kate Allstadt's NSF Postdocoral fellowship starting in September, 2014 at the USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory. 2015 IAS http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/scheduledetails/exptnumb/201506 Imaging the Socorro Fault. SJFZ_SAF http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/scheduledetails/exptnumb/201512 The San Jacinto fault zone is the most seismically-active branch of the San Andreas system in southern California, with accelerated activity of M5+ events in recent years. We propose integrated multi-scale multi-signal studies of spatio-temporal variations of earthquake sources, geodetic motion, rock properties, stresses and fluids within and around the SJFZ, deformation of its ductile root, geometry of the underlying Moho, and lateral connections to the San Andreas fault. The studies will provide fundamental quantitative information on the system behavior of a major branch of the plate-boundary in southern California having high current seismic hazard. The project will augment excellent regional and local infrastructure with key seismic, geodetic, and magneto-telluric observations aiming to provide state-of-the-art knowledge on coupled evolution of earthquakes and fault zone properties. Rupture-meters consisting of creep meters and accelerometers will span several fault sections where large events are expected. We will develop a detailed structural model integrating scales ranging from interfaces and damage zones comprising the internal fault zone structure to the regional plate-boundary framework and the underlying ductile substrate. The model will be derived using joint analyses of travel time and waveform tomography of local earthquakes, ambient seismic noise, fault zone head and trapped waves, seismic anisotropy and attenuation, magneto telluric data, receiver functions, and additional analyses of reflected/transmitted phases from prominent horizontal and vertical interfaces. The structural model will be linked to geodetic data characterizing the steady and transient strain fields, locking depths, and deformation in the downward continuation of different fault sections. The various types of geophysical data will provide, in conjunction with theoretical analyses, strong constraints on the stresses, fluids, and effective rheology. Accurate local and regional seismicity catalogs will be used to characterize geometrical properties of all seismically active volumes and evolutionary seismicity patterns. The project will establish a unique natural laboratory for studying connections between the SAF and SJFZ, processes and conditions preceding M>7 type events on a continental transform fault, and co- and post-seismic fields associated with such an earthquake if/when it occurs (we intend to leave as many instruments as possible in the field beyond the project duration by integrating them into existing networks). The research will phase in over five years, will leverage UNAVCO resources and related collaborations to be cost-effective, and will complement studies by other investigators focusing on other major fault zones. HWO http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/scheduledetails/exptnumb/201361 A series of rocket motor explosions to be conducted at EMRTC (Socorro, NM) for the purpose of improving understanding of ground and atmospheric coupling. The experiments will be conducted in four different seasons to study climate variability on atmospheric signals. LaMa http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/scheduledetails/exptnumb/201507 Deploy 30 PASSCAL broadband stations in late 2015 or early 2016 for approximately 18 months to complement 12 UW broadband stations that will be deployed in late 2014 or early 2015, subject to the NSF IES project being funded. The project goal is to image the magma chamber beneath the Laguna del Maule volcanic center. Laguna del Maule has the potential to become the site of a caldera-forming eruption. South Georgia Basin - SUGAR http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/scheduledetails/exptnumb/201402 The rocks beneath the coastal plain of Georgia were at the center of the most fundamental tectonic events to shape eastern North America: continental collision around 290 million years ago to form the super continent of Pangea; continental breakup leading to the formation of the Atlantic Ocean beginning around 230 million years ago; and one of the biggest magmatic events in Earth’s history around 200 million years ago, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. A record of these events and possible relationships between them is preserved by structures in the crust of southern Georgia, including a suture between two different types of continent, the largest failed rift basin along the east coast of North America and igneous rocks from the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. These investigators and a large team of graduate and undergraduate students are collecting seismic data that can be used to image structures in the crust to understand these tectonic events. Hundreds of geophones are being deployed along two ~300-km-long profiles across the suture and the basin, which record sound waves generated by a series of explosive charges spaced ~20 km apart. Geophones are also being deployed in a box focused on the basin to record explosive charges arranged in a grid. The speed that sound waves travel through rocks varies with composition, porosity, and other rock characteristics. The investigators are using travel-time tomography to create velocity models that reveal the distribution of igneous rocks, variations in the thickness of the crust and variations in crustal composition. Besides a better understanding of fundamental tectonic processes, other benefits of this program include training and education of students, and characterization of basins and igneous rocks that might be good targets for carbon sequestration. SPE5 http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/scheduledetails/exptnumb/201509 This is an experiment to reoccupy Transportable Array (TA) sites around the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) where the largest in a series of chemical explosions will be conducted. The SPE5 shot is a 5000 kg explosion in granite and should be observed at regional distances. This shot has been delayed from the original date of October 2013 and is currently scheduled for May 2015. LIGO http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/scheduledetails/exptnumb/201516 We will be installing magnetic field monitoring stations close to the LIGO Observatories in Hanford WA and Livingston LA. See ligo.org for a description of this NSF funded experiment trying to detect gravitational waves. Global magnetic fields from the Schumann resonances are creating common noise in these two detectors. We are hoping to install very low noise magnetometers close (within 10s of km) to the observatories. Through discussions with Noel Barstow of PASSCAL we converged on the request for two RefTek RT 130 Dataloggers, plus associated solar power (Panels). CWU Seismology http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/scheduledetails/exptnumb/201515 Graduate Level Seismology Class Laboratory Component SMB_2015 http://www.passcal.nmt.edu/scheduledetails/exptnumb/201513 We will be deploying a set of short period single component NodalSeismic instruments along roads within the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge to study the extend of the Socorro Magma Body, a shallow magma feature at 19 km depth in central New Mexico. We would like to supplement the nodes with wider band, 3 component instruments in areas distributed within the road network of the refuge in order to expand the analysis capabilities of the study as well as provide a mixed-mode dataset for broader community use.