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The Geophysical Earth Observatory for Ice-Covered Environments (GEOICE) project was a NSF collaborative Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) program that expanded the PASSCAL Polar group’s observational capabilities and logistical efficiencies. GEOICE developed a rapidly deployable, dense footprint seismic observatory system for operation in ice-covered areas. The GEOICE project was a collaborative effort between Central Washington University (CWU), Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) and the Portable Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL) Instrument Center at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology.

Electrical Diagrams

Power Management Module (PMM):  Enclosure containing the charge controller and power switcher.
Short battery harness:  Connects battery to multiple battery harness or other load cable.
Short 5-pin/3 battery:  Connects primary and rechargeable batteries to PMM.
Battery harness connects 2:  Connects 2 rechargeable batteries together.
Battery harness connects 10:  Connects 10 primary battery packs together.
Battery harness connects 8:  Connects 8 rechargeable batteries together.


Batteries are PI Supplied.

Batteries come in two main types, primary which are single use and secondary which are rechargeable.

Related categories:

Batteries for Summer Only Enclosure

Rechargeable Batteries

Rechargeable batteries are used for summer-only and year-round polar seismic experiments. For summer-only experiments, due to the roughly continuous sunlight, stations can be powered solely with rechargeable batteries.

For PASSCAL Polar experiments the preferred rechargeable battery is an AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) battery manufactured by Concorde Battery Corporation. Both the Sun Xtender PVX-420T and PVX-560T work well for a summer deployment where only a limited amount of storage is required for cloudy days.

Primary Batteries

Primary batteries are usually not necessary for summer only deployment due to the ample amount of sunlight available.


Batteries for Year Round Polar Programs

Rechargeable batteries:

Rechargeable batteries are used for projects using solar and/or wind charging systems. PASSCAL's Polar Group has used SunXtender AGM batteries by Concord succesfully for many deployments. These batteries, aside from being reliable, offer several advantages. They are sealed and non-spillable, which makes then safer and easier to handle in the field; they have a low self discharge rate, which is important for a low power system, with extended periods of time between charges (arctic conditions); and they are exempt of DOT HazMat requirements (49 CFR Section 173.159) provided that they are shipped in their original package or in a package that satisfies the requirements of 49 CFR 173.159(d).

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